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Jumat, 04 Mei 2012


DESCRIPTIVE TEXT ABOUT PLACE

The Borobudur Temple

             Borobudur is Hindu – Budhist temple. It was build in the nineth century under Sailendra dynasty of ancient Mataram kingdom. Borobudur is located in Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia.
Borobudur is well-known all over the world. Its construction is influenced by the Gupta architecture of India. The temple is constructed on a hill 46 m high and consist of eight step like stone terrace. The first five terrace are square and surrounded by walls adorned with Budist sculpture in bas-relief. The upper three are circular. 
Each of them is with a circle of bell shape-stupa. The entire adifice is crowned by a large stupa at the centre at the centre of the top circle. The way to the summit extends through some 4.8 km of passage and starways. The design of borobudur which symbolizes the structure of universe influences temples at Angkor, Cambodia. Borobudur temple which is rededicated as an Indonesian monument in 1983 is a valuable treasure for Indonesian people.


The Borobudur Temple

Indonesia has many ancient things especially the remains of the pre-historic period, for example : tombs, temples, and fortesses. The Borobudur temple is one of the historical remains in Sriwijaya era. Its king was Samaratungga. It was built about in 850 B.C. King Samaratungga was descendant from King Sailendra embraced Buddha.
The temples of Budha located in Magelang among others are Mendut, Pawon, and Borobudur. This Borobudur is the biggest and the most magnificent among all the temples. Several descendants, idest: Dieng, Gebang, Sambisari, and Prambanan. Generally the temples in Indonesia were the tomb of the King families, but the temples were built by The King embraced Budhism used for the worship. The attractive power of temples are not only the beauty , but also the ornaments decorated on them, a lot of the relief on the walls including the statues. The statue were made of rock and bronze.
Nowadays most of the bronze statues were lost. We can find the relief although some of the parts got damage. Thus the goverment has rehabilitated them to preserve the temples, the attraction and their beauty. The temples have become the income resources out of the oil and gas, because many foreign and domestic tourist visit them.


The Prambanan Temple


Prambanan is the largest Hindu temple compound in Central Java in Indonesia, located approximately 18 km east of Yogyakarta. The temple is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is one of the largest Hindu temples in south-east Asia. It is characterised by its tall and pointed architecture, typical of Hindu temple architecture, and by the 47m high central building inside a large complex of individual temples.
It was built around 850 CE by either Rakai Pikatan, king of the second Mataram dynasty, or Balitung Maha Sambu, during the Sanjaya Dynasty. Not long after its construction, the temple was abandoned and began to deteriorate. Reconstruction of the compound began in 1918. The main building was completed in around 1953. Much of the original stonework has been stolen and reused at remote construction sites. A temple will only be rebuilt if at least 75% of the original stones are available, and therefore only the foundation walls of most of the smaller shrines are now visible and with no plans for their reconstruction.
The temple was damaged during the earthquake in Java in 2006. Early photos suggest that although the complex appears to be structurally intact, damage is significant. Large pieces of debris, including carvings, were scattered over the ground. The temple has been closed to the public until damage can be fully assessed. The head of Yogyakarta Archaeological Conservation Agency stated that: “it will take months to identify the precise damage”. However, some weeks later in 2006 the site re-opened for visitors. The immediate surroundings of the Hindu temples remain off-limits for safety reasons.


The Prambanan Temple


Prambanan is a stunningly beautiful building built in the 10th century during the reign of two kings, and Rakai Rakai Pikatan balitung. Rose as high as 47 feet (5 meters higher than Borobudur temple),the foundation of this temple has fulfilled the desire, to show Hindu triumph in Java. This temple is located 17 kilometers from the city center, in the middle area that is now a beautiful park.
There is a legend that Javanese people always tell about this temple. Once, a man named Bandung Bondowoso loved Roro Jonggrang. Because of his love, Jonggrang asked Bondowoso make 1000 temples with statues in one night. The request was nearly fulfilled when Jonggrang asked the villagers to pound rice and to make a big fire that created an atmosphere like the morning. New Bondowoso can make the 999 statues cursed Jonggrang into the statue-1000 because he felt cheated.
Prambanan temple has three main temples in the primary yard, namely Vishnu, Brahma, and Shiva. The third temple is the symbol of Trimurti in Hindu belief. All three temples were facing east. Each main temple has accompanying temple facing to the west, namely Nandini for Shiva, Swan to Brahma, and Garuda for Vishnu. In addition, there are two temples wedge, four of the temple curtain, and 4 corner temples. Meanwhile, the second page had 224 temples.


Taj Mahal, Agra, India


Taj Mahal is regarded as one of the eight wonders of the world, and some Western historians have noted that its architectural beauty has never been surpassed. The Taj is the most beautiful monument built by the Mughals, the Muslim rulers of India. Taj Mahal is built entirely of white marble. Its stunning architectural beauty is beyond adequate description, particularly at dawn and sunset. The Taj seems to glow in the light of the full moon. On a foggy morning, the visitors experience the Taj as if suspended when viewed from across the Jamuna river.
Taj Mahal was built by a Muslim, Emperor Shah Jahan (died 1666 C.E.) in the memory of his dear wife and queen Mumtaz Mahal at Agra, India. It is an "elegy in marble" or some say an expression of a "dream." Taj Mahal (meaning Crown Palace) is a Mausoleum that houses the grave of queen Mumtaz Mahal at the lower chamber. The grave of Shah Jahan was added to it later. The queen’s real name was Arjumand Banu. In the tradition of the Mughals, important ladies of the royal family were given another name at their marriage or at some other significant event in their lives, and that new name was commonly used by the public. Shah Jahan's real name was Shahab-ud-din, and he was known as Prince Khurram before ascending to the throne in 1628.
Taj Mahal was constructed over a period of twenty-two years, employing twenty thousand workers. It was completed in 1648 C.E. at a cost of 32 Million Rupees. The construction documents show that its master architect was Ustad ‘Isa, the renowned Islamic architect of his time. The documents contain names of those employed and the inventory of construction materials and their origin. Expert craftsmen from Delhi, Qannauj, Lahore, and Multan were employed. In addition, many renowned Muslim craftsmen from Baghdad, Shiraz and Bukhara worked on many specialized tasks.
The Taj stands on a raised, square platform (186 x 186 feet) with its four corners truncated, forming an unequal octagon. The architectural design uses the interlocking arabesque concept, in which each element stands on its own and perfectly integrates with the main structure. It uses the principles of self-replicating geometry and a symmetry of architectural elements.
Its central dome is fifty-eight feet in diameter and rises to a height of 213 feet. It is flanked by four subsidiary domed chambers. The four graceful, slender minarets are 162.5 feet each. The entire mausoleum (inside as well as outside) is decorated with inlaid design of flowers and calligraphy using precious gems such as agate and jasper. The main archways, chiseled with passages from the Holy Qur’an and the bold scroll work of flowery pattern, give a captivating charm to its beauty. The central domed chamber and four adjoining chambers include many walls and panels of Islamic decoration.
The mausoleum is a part of a vast complex comprising of a main gateway, an elaborate garden, a mosque (to the left), a guest house (to the right), and several other palatial buildings. The Taj is at the farthest end of this complex, with the river Jamuna behind it. The large garden contains four reflecting pools dividing it at the center. Each of these four sections is further subdivided into four sections and then each into yet another four sections. Like the Taj, the garden elements serve like Arabesque, standing on their own and also constituting the whole.


DESCRIPTIVE TEXT ABOUT ANIMAL

The African Elephant


The African Elephant is described as the Loxodonta africana of Africa. They are very large, grey, four-legged herbivorous mammals. They have almost hairless skin, a distinctive long, flexible, prehensile trunk. Its upper incisors form long curved tusks of ivory. African elephants have large fan-shaped ears and two “fingers” at the tip of its trunk, compared to only one in the Asian species. Furthermore, the Indian Elephant is described as Elephas maximus of south-central Asia. The ears of Indian elephants are significantly smaller than African elephants.
Elephants are herbivores and eat all types of vegetation such as grasses, leaves, fruits, and bark. The facts tell that despite the size of ears the elephant’s hearing is poor, because elephants ears are used to aid ventilation. One of the softest parts of their body is at the back of the ears, which is called the knuckle. In a zoo, elephant trainers, called Mahouts, use their feet to steer or give commands to the animal via the knuckle at the back of the ears. 
Some other facts about the elephants are : The elephant is the largest of all land mammals; Life Span - elephants can live for up to 70 years; Elephants normally walk about 4 mph; Elephants are able to swim for long distances; Elephants spend about 16 hours a day eating; They consume as much as 495 pounds of food per day; They live in tight social units led by an older matriarch; Males leave the herd between the ages of 12 and 15; Their tusks are of ivory and are actually enormously enlarged incisors; The elephant's eyes are small and its eyesight is poor, They have the largest brains in the animal kingdom.

The African Lion


Lions are the only cats that live in groups, which are called prides. Prides are family units that may include up to three males, a dozen or so females, and their young. All of a pride's lionesses are related, and female cubs typically stay with the group as they age. Young males eventually leave and establish their own prides by taking over a group headed by another male.
Only male lions boast manes, the impressive fringe of long hair that encircles their heads. Males defend the pride's territory, which may include some 100 square miles (259 square kilometers) of grasslands, scrub, or open woodlands. These intimidating animals mark the area with urine, roar menacingly to warn intruders, and chase off animals that encroach on their turf.
Female lions are the pride's primary hunters. They often work together to prey upon antelopes, zebras, wildebeest, and other large animals of the open grasslands. Many of these animals are faster than lions, so teamwork pays off.
After the hunt, the group effort often degenerates to squabbling over the sharing of the kill, with cubs at the bottom of the pecking order. Young lions do not help to hunt until they are about a year old. Lions will hunt alone if the opportunity presents itself, and they also steal kills from hyenas or wild dogs.
Lions have been celebrated throughout history for their courage and strength. They once roamed most of Africa and parts of Asia and Europe. Today they are found only in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, except for one very small population of Asian lions that survives in India's Gir Forest.
DESCRIPTIVE ABOUT PERSON
David Beckham

David Beckham is one of Britain's most iconic athletes whose name is also an elite global advertising brand. He was captain of the English national team from 2000 to 2006, scored in three different FIFA World Cups, and played midfield for clubs in Manchester, England, Madrid, Spain, and Milan, Italy; he also won the MLS Cup playing for Los Angeles Galaxy in 2011.
He was born David Robert Joseph Beckham on May 2, 1975, in Leytonstone, East London, England, son of Ted Beckham, a kitchen fitter, and Sandra West, a hairdresser. Beckham's maternal grandfather is Jewish, and he has been mentioning the religion as influence; he wears a tattoo written in Hebrew from the 'Song of Songs' in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament), albeit he is not known to practice Judaism or any other faith. Beckham has always played in long sleeve shirts to cover up his tattoos in consideration of others who may feel uncomfortable due to their beliefs.
He was brought up by his parents, supporters of Manchester United, attended Bobby Charlton's football school in Manchester, and won a spot in a training session at FC Barcelona as a child. In 1986 he was a Manchester United's mascot for a match against West Ham United. From 1992 - 2003 Beckham made almost 400 appearances for Manchester United and scored 85 goals, although his official record counts only 62 goals in 265 official senior team's matches. In the 1998 FIFA World Cup he played all of England's qualifying matches and scored in several important victories. He received a red card for violent conduct in England's match against Argentina, albeit his opponent later admitted to trying to send Beckham off by over-reacting to their contact during the game and by urging the referee to send Beckham off. After losing the game England was eliminated, Beckham was made a scapegoat and became the target of criticism and abuse in media.
He had a good season in 1999 - 2000 and helped Manchester United to win the Premier League. At that time, he married singer Victoria Beckham (nee' Adams) from the popular musical group The Spice Girls, and the couple had their first son, Brooklyn, born in 1999. That same year, Beckham was given a permission to miss training routine, in order to look after his son Brooklyn, who suffered from a stomach infection. Meanwhile, the Manchester United's manager, Alex Ferguson, fined Beckham £50,000 (about $80,000 then) the maximum amount that was permitted, for babysitting with his sick child, while his wife was spotted at a London fashion Week event on the same night. Ferguson's claim that Beckham should be able to train if his wife stayed home that day, caused a serious personal tension between two men. In February 2003, following the defeat to Arsenal, the Manchester United's manager Alex Ferguson entered the changing room and kicked a football boot that struck Beckham over the eye, causing a cut that required stitches.
David Beckham has been a good scorer and a major attraction for public. On the field he has been demonstrating his consistent ability to see a big picture even under severe pressure during the most rapidly changing and unpredictable games. His field vision has been remarkable, allowing him to create many assists in a number of important matches. Beckham's forte has been his delivery from the right-hand side as well as his efficient free kicks. His superior performances in the midfield position has required a higher physical endurance through the entire game. "David Beckham's right foot" was mentioned, although humorously, as one of British national treasures in the movie Love Actually (2003).
He signed a four-year contract with Real Madrid, beginning on July 1, 2003, and worth a potential 40 million dollars. In Madrid, Beckham was not allowed to wear his favorite number seven, because another player had the right to wear it written into his contract. Beckham decided to wear the number 23 instead, being a big fan of Michael Jordan. He immediately became popular with the Real Madrid fans, but the team did not perform well enough to win either the Spanish League or the Champions League. However, Beckham remained a reliable scorer and his performances attracted more public. His shirts sales and other merchandising deals remained lucrative for the club, which continued to under-perform, regardless of the Real's management's higher expectations.
In 2005 Beckham became a UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador. He was also involved in promoting London's successful bid for the 2012 Olympic Games. His third season in Madrid was unremarkable, and he was criticized a lot, mainly because the team finished second to Barcelona in Spanish "La Liga" and lost to Arsenal in the European Champions League. However, during that season, he expanded his international presence by establishing football academies in Los Angeles and East London. During the FIFA World Cup 2006, he played for England, and became the first ever English player to score in three World Cups. In the quarter final game against Portugal, Beckham was replaced because of his injury in the middle of the game. Without him the English team lost and was knocked out of the World Cup.
In June 2007 Beckham played his final game for Real Madrid, winning a medal and celebrating with his friends Tom and Katie Cruse, who attended the game. This was his fourth, and last season there, ending his contract with the club. He announced that he had signed a five-year contract to play for the Los Angeles Galaxy from July 1, 2007 through June 2012. The 5-year deal includes up to $10 million a year in direct salary, and with merchandising endorsements and profit-sharing could earn Beckham up to $50 million a year, and may end up worth about $250 million in five years, making him one of the highest earning athletes of all time.
In 2009, in a unique time share agreement David played on loan at AC Milan to maintain his fitness after ending the season with the Galaxy. He ended up staying with Milan for five months, from January to May 2009. In 2010, he also arranged to embark on a second loan spell at AC Milan from the Galaxy, to play for Milan for another five months. He said that he "genuinely enjoyed playing for Milan."
In 2011, after winning his first MLS Cup, his five-year deal with the Los Angeles Galaxy ended. At that time, Beckham was invited to play for Paris Saint-Germain. But the 36-year-old player said "My family and I are incredibly happy and settled in America and we look forward to spending many more years here... I am still passionate about playing in America and winning trophies with the Galaxy" he stated after signing another two-year contract with the Los Angeles club.
Beckham's jersey No 23 is the best selling in the MLS and one of the best in the world, as he expands his image as one of sport's leading icons. Although he plays his best in the right of midfield, Beckham can be dangerous anywhere in the field and can make a difference in a big game with a pass, a cross, or a free kick. Arguably no one in the game can rival Beckham's accuracy in free kicks, as he can put that ball on a teammate's head with uncanny precision. He is still a decisive player, regardless of age.
The Beckhams, who have become known as "Posh and Becks", have three sons: Brooklyn Joseph Beckham (born 1999), Romeo James Beckham (born 2002), and Cruz David Beckham (born 2005) who was named "Cruz" in honor of their friend Tom Cruise.









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